Rehab costs Mine rehabilitation costs end up significantly higher than planned.
Inefficient processes Existing bulk earthwork processes include uneconomical levels of rehandling.
Changing expectations Stakeholder requirements change rapidly as miners navigate the impact of ESG on closure activities and liabilities.
Earth difficulties Many sites experience poor landform design, erosion challenges and additional earthwork effort.
Social licence Inability to demonstrate successful rehabilitation outcomes to maintain social licence.
Perpetual care challenges Undertaking closure activities can be marred by perpetual care and maintenance bottlenecks.